Lancaster Best RAF Strategic Bomber World War Two

Lancaster Best RAF Strategic Bomber World War Two. It was the addition of the “Lanc” to RAF Bomber command which gave the command such hitting power.

 

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AVRO Lancaster

the photo above from the official  Royal Air Force history site which you can below.

https://www.rafmuseum.org.uk/

“Born out of the failure that was the Manchester, the Lancaster has become the one bomber most associated with the RAF night offensive over Germany.” RAF

 

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Avro Lancasters of No. 50 Squadron (No. 5 Group), based at Skellingthorpe, Lincolnshire, UK. These wartime aircraft carry the exhaust shrouds intended to conceal the exhaust flames from night fighters

Lancaster B Mark Is of No 50 Squadron, Royal Air Force, based at Skellingthorpe, flying in a spread formation. The two aircraft beyond the wing tip are ‘VN-D’ and ‘VN-J’ the former, serial number JA899, was missing on the night of 24 – 25 June 1944 with Pilot Officer L G Peters and crew.

Official RAF photo Imperial War Museum

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A Royal Air Force Avro Lancaster I (s/n NG128, coded “SR-B”) of No. 101 Sqn out of Ludford Magna and flown by Fg Off R.B. Tibbs as part of a thousand-bomber raid, dropping its load over Duisburg, Germany, on 14-15 October 1944.

Note the large aerials on top of the Lancaster’s fuselage, indicating that the aircraft is carrying ‘Airborne Cigar’ (ABC), a jamming device which disrupted enemy radiotelephone channels. Over 2,000 sorties were dispatched to the city of Duisburg during 14-15 October 1944, in order to demonstrate the RAF Bomber Command’s overwhelming superiority in German skies (“Operation Hurricane”).

Left image: the Lancaster releases bundles of ‘Window’ over the target during a special daylight raid on Duisburg. Right image: a fraction of a second later, the aircraft releases the main part of its load, a 4000lb HC “cookie” and 108 30lb “J” incendiaries. Official RAF Photo courtesy Imperial War Museum.

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Sergeant H H Turkentine, the bomb aimer on board an Avro Lancaster B Mark I of No. 57 Squadron RAF, at his position in the nose of the aircraft. Sergeant Turkentine were killed with the rest of the crew of Lancaster R5894 ‘ DX-T’ (“T for Tommy”) when it collided with high tension cables near Scampton upon returning from a raid on Berlin in the early morning of 2 March 1943.  Official RAF Photo courtesy Imperial War Museum

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Flight -Sergeant J Morgan, the rear gunner of an Avro Lancaster of No 630 Squadron RAF at East Kirkby, Lincolnshire, checks his guns in the Nash & Thompson FN120 tail turret before taking off on a night raid on the marshaling yards at Juvisy-sur-Orge, France.

Official RAF Photo courtesy Imperial War Museum

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The bomb load used for industrial demolition (Bomber Command executive codeword ‘Abnormal’), loaded in the bomb-bay of an Avro Lancaster of No. 9 Squadron RAF at Bardney, Lincolnshire, before a night raid on Stettin, Germany. ‘Abnormal’ consisted of 14 x 1,000-lb MC high-explosive bombs.

Official RAF Photo courtesy Imperial War Museum

From the official history site of the Royal Air Force:

“When it became clear to Avro’s Chief Designer, Roy Chadwick, in 1938 that the new Rolls Royce Vulture engines intended for the Manchester were suffering from a lack of development, the company set about revising the design to include an additional pair of engines, preferably the well-proven Merlin. As a matter of fact, so dire was the Manchester situation that the Ministry of Aircraft production seriously considered scrapping the production line at the Avro factory at Newton Heath in Manchester after its contract for 200 Manchesters had been completed, and switch to the rival Handley Page design, the Halifax.

 

Lancaster in flight RAF history

Lancasters in flight

Fortunately, the plan never came to fruition and Avro was allowed to continue development of the Manchester III (the name Lancaster had not yet been chosen).

In September 1940, a contract was signed with Avro for two prototype aircraft, the first of which was to fly within four months. To do this, Avro was to use as many existing Manchester components as possible to reduce cost and the timescale. Within a month, Avro had prepared the requisite technical drawings for the Lancaster and things progressed smoothly with the first flight being made on 9 January 1941.

 

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Three Avro Lancaster B.Is of No. 44 Squadron, Royal Air Force, based at Waddington, Lincolnshire (UK), flying above the clouds.

The first aircraft was very much a hybrid design, and a more representative aircraft followed in May 1941. The second prototype had larger tail fins, a new undercarriage and improved Merlin engines and the true potential of the aircraft could now be tested. Test flying continued throughout the summer and the first production Lancaster I was flown on the last day of October 1941.

 

The first Lancaster squadron was No 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron, based at Waddington and commanded by Wing Commander RAB Learoyd VC and deliveries commenced on Christmas Eve 1941. Shortly after, No 97 Squadron traded in its Hampdens for Lancasters and both units commenced their operational work-up. By May 1942, No 44 Squadron was ready for operations and during the night of 10th/11th March 1942, a number of its aircraft took part in a raid on Essen.

Barely a month later, Lancasters from both Nos 44 and 97 Squadrons, had carried out a daring, low-level daylight attack on the MAN diesel engine factory at Augsburg, deep in Germany. A number of diversionary raids in northern France partially failed to draw enemy fighters away from the Lancaster’s route further south and as result four aircraft from the twelve involved were shot down before reaching the target.

The remaining aircraft successfully attacked, with a number of direct hits being achieved, but three further aircraft failed to return. Only one aircraft of the six despatched from No 44 Squadron survived – that of Squadron Leader JD Nettleton, the squadron commander. For his leadership, Nettleton was awarded the Victoria Cross.

 

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Flying Officer J B Burnside, the flight engineer on board an Avro Lancaster B Mark III of No. 619 Squadron RAF based at Coningsby, Lincolnshire, checks settings on the control panel from his seat in the cockpit. Official RAF Photo courtesy Imperial War Museum

Throughout the remainder of 1942, the transition to Lancasters in Bomber Command was relatively slow, but the increase in the total tonnage of bombs in operations was increasing rapidly because of the ability of the Lancaster to carry bombs greater than the 4,000lb High Capacity (the only aircraft that could do so)…

Elsewhere in Bomber Command, the Lancaster continued on more mundane duties (including minelaying). The Battles of the Hamburg, the Ruhr, and Berlin in 1943 and early 1944, the famous attack on the V1 establishment at Peenemünde in August 1943 were some of the high points of the Lancaster’s service.

At the other end of the scale, over 60 Lancasters alone were lost during the raid on Nuremberg in March 1944. Almost half of all Lancasters delivered during the war (3,345 out of 7,373) were lost on operations with the loss of over 21,000 crew members.

The basic Lancaster, the B.I was such an excellent airframe, that few changes were made to improve it. The B.II was a Bristol Hercules-powered variant built to counter possible supply problems with the Merlins; the B.III was powered by improved Merlins and, along with the B.I, the standard mount of many Lancaster squadrons. The final version built in significant numbers was the Mark X which was built under license in Canada.

Of those 7,000+ aircraft built, only two airworthy examples exist as a tribute to the many thousands who lost their lives in Bomber Command; one with the RAF’s Battle of Britain Memorial Flight and the second based in Canada.”

 

 

How to Make Your Home an Air Raid Shelter

“When a high explosive bomb falls, any building near is likely to be destroyed and any house hit is sure to collapse.” (Good to know)

The endurance of the British under the terror of German bombing is an example to us all.

This newsreel issued the Ministry for Home Security demonstrates how an ordinary householder and his family can turn their home into an air raid shelter. You could go to your nearest Post Office and buy for three pence (at this time there were 240 pence to a pound) a helpful pamphlet which is meant to go with the newsreel.

The British weren’t as cool and calm in the German air raids of World War Two as they are made out to be because they were people just like you and me. But, given the circumstances, they were pretty damn calm about it. Their endurance in the face of terror is an example to us all.

When Your Number’s Up Then Your Number’s Is Up

I interviewed someone about three years ago who had lived in London later in the war when the bombing was intermittent.

“What did you do when the air raid siren went off?”

“We went to the basement of the building where were living.”

“Were you scared?”

“You know, our attitude at the time was when your number’s up then your number’s up.

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photo courtesy of the Canadian Centre for Architecture

Air Raid! Don’t Be a Fool and Stand Around Looking Up at the Sky!

This 60 second instructive video from the British Ministry of Information in 1940 offers excellent advice on what to do in an air raid. The most important thing: is don’t stand around looking up at the sky! Get under cover immediately.

 From reading a number of memoirs of people who went through air raids in World War Two, I learned that some people just stopped and looked up when they heard the siren go off. (There were different sirens: warning sirens then immediate danger sirens which meant bombers were almost on top of you).

In Great Britain and Nazi Germany and Nazi occupied Europe, you could not be on the streets during an air raid. One of the reasons was the sharpnel falling from anti-aircraft shells which were set to explode at certain heights. I would guess that based on memoirs, probably 1% of people killed in air raids during the era were killed by falling sharpnel.

So the important thing was to get under cover!