Highest Casualty Rate in British Empire


The “Red Ensign” was the flag flown by the British Merchant Navy. The Royal Navy flew the “White Ensign”

(photo courtesy of  the National Archives of the United Kingdom)

 19% of officers and ratings of the British Merchant Navy died in World War Two as the result of hostile action–a far higher percentage than any branches of the British and Commonwealth Forces.

The actual number who died is 25,864 men. Not of these men weren’t actually British sailors. Many were from neutral countries such as Sweden, who volunteered to sail on Swedish ships chartered to the British Ministry of War Transport. Others were Portuguese, also neutral.

840 ships from foreign nations who were belligerents against Germany including Norway, the Netherlands and Greece placed themselves under charter to the British although the Germans offered them large sums to come back to their own countries. The men refused.



British sailor covered in oil from a tanker torpedoed in 1943

(photo courtesy of IWM)

Ships not specifically built or purchased by the British Ministry of War Transport were insured by the Ministry since obviously no maritime insurance company could take the risk of insuring merchant ships in a war.



 Three Lascars of the P&O liner Viceroy of India, standing behind the wheel of one of the ship’s tenders. National Maritime Museum from Greenwich, United Kingdom.


A large number of men who crewed British merchant ships were Lascars, men native to the Indian subcontinent. They were paid far less than white British sailors and signed a more restrictive set of articles as they were known before signing on.

A number of British owned ships were crewed entirely by Lascars except for the officers or mates who were white or “European” as they were known. On these ships officers were required the predominant language of the crew such as Hindi and speak it fluently since all orders were given in the language of the crew.

Despite the carnage, well known to the merchant officers and sailors, not one Allied merchant ship ever failed to find a crew and put to sea. Yes, there were delays as some men balked and said “hell no.” Nonetheless, officers and crewmen were always found who manned the ships.

They were brave men.



Survivors of two merchant ships crowd the decks of a rescue trawler at St. John’s, Newfoundland, April 1943.
(photo courtesy of National Library of Canada)



source: Churchill’s Navy

author’s research

“The Navy’s here!” Captain Philip Vian and HMS Cossack Become Famous

Commander, later Admiral of the Fleet, Sir Philip Vian, in the first years of World War Two. He was one of the Royal Navy’s greatest fighting officers of the war. During his encounter with the Bismarck, Vian commanded his destroyer flotilla from the ship he had made famous during the Altmark incident, HMS Cossack.

In Feb 1940, the German auxiliary ship, Altmark, which had served as supply ship and oiler for the pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee, had made its way from the South Atlantic to a fjord in what were then the neutral waters of Norway. In addition to her other functions, Altmark served as a floating POW camp for almost three hundred British merchant officers and men whose ships had been captured by the Graf Spee.

Tribal class destroyer HMS Cossack, under the command of Philip Vian, was sent to hunt for the Altmark. While the Germans and Norwegians denied it, the British knew from radio decrypts that a large number of British merchant sailors were being held aboard. Under orders from London, Vian was given discretion to violate Norwegian neutrality and free the British prisoners.

In a Norwegian fjord, February 1940, German auxiliary supply ship Altmark. Photo taken after she had been boarded by an armed party from HMS Cossack and almost three hundred British prisoners freed. Photo courtesy of the Imperial War Museum

The biggest problem said Vian in his memoirs, Action this Day: A War Memoir, is that no one actually knew what the Altmark looked like.

Wrote Vian “The best clue we could find was in a wardroom copy of the Illustrated London News. This showed a picture of two vessels, the caption of which read: ‘German raider Altmark examining a neutral merchant ship in the Atlantic.’ Which of the two was Altmark it did not say, and we assumed it was the four-masted ship in the foreground, rather than the tanker-type further away.”
Eventually they found the correct ship. So afraid of the Germans was the Norwegian government that a Norwegian patrol boat was actually guarding the Altmark against an attempt by the Royal Navy to board the Altmark. After positioning HMS Cossack so she could not be torpedoed by the patrol boat, Vian trained his guns on her. This persuaded the Norwegian patrol boat to signal she had no choice but to yield to force majeure and exited the scene.

HMS Cossack headed into the fjord to board the Altmark and get the British prisoners. Altmark trained her searchlight onto the bridge of HMS Cossack to blind the officers then came full speed astern down the channel in the ice she had made going into the fjord intent on ramming the Royal Navy warship.

Both ships maneuvered for advantage and seizing a clear moment, Vian lay Cossack alongside the Altmark and the order, “boarders away,” rang out for one of the few times in World War Two. Lt Bradwell Turner, RN, leader of the boarding party, proceeded to leap onto the Altmark.

In his memoir Vian described the scene: “Petty Officer Atkins, who followed him, fell short, and hung by his hands until Turner heaved him on deck. The two quickly made fast a hemp hawser from Cossack’s forecastle, and the rest of the party scrambled across. Turner, his men at his back stormed onto the bridge of the Altmark and found the engine telegraphs set to full speed in an endeavor to force HMS Cossack ashore. When Turner appeared, the Captain and other officers surrendered and Turner rang the engine telegraphs to ‘stop engines’.”

Flag-draped coffins containing German dead are brought ashore for burial after the Altmark Incident in Jøssingfjord, Norway. The six Germans died during a gun battle with the British boarding party. 16 February 1940.

But the captain of the Altmark had not told the armed guards placed on his ship by the Graf Spee to surrender. As the boarding party carefully made their way through the German ship, one of the sentries opened fire and hit one of the British sailors, who fortunately was not killed. With that, the German armed guards went over the side fled across the ice toward the shore. Outlined by the white of the snow, they foolishly began firing at the Royal Navy boarders who returned fire, killing six Germans and wounding six more.

Admiral Vian continues the story in his memoirs:
“Resistance overcome, Turner was able to turn to the business of the day. The prisoners were under locked hatches in the holds; when these had been broken open Turner hailed the men below with the words, “Any British down there?” He was greeted with a tremendous yell of: “Yes! We’re all British!”

“Come on up then,” said Turner, “the Navy’s here.”
This last became one of the most famous phrases in Great Britain during the war. HMS Cossack took aboard 13 British merchant ship masters, and 286 officers and men.

HMS Cossack arrives at Leith, Scotland with her load of British Merchant Captains, Officers and crews, February 17 1940, after their dramatic rescue from the German Altmark.

It is worth noting here from my research into my novel, An Honorable German, that Captain Langsdorff of the Graf Spee had treated all prisoners with great courtesy and allowed them all they were due under international laws and conventions. Captain Dau of the Altmark was a vicious man, a convinced Nazi and a man who despised the British. Once the British prisoners had been transferred to him from the Graf Spee, his treatment of them was brutal and inhumane. When rescued, all of the British merchant mariners were half starved and malnourished although the Altmark had a huge amount of food in her cargo holds.

Vian had no specific orders about what to do with the German officers. He had rescued all the imprisoned British merchant mariners and since the situation seemed complicated enough as it was and HMS Cossack had violated the neutrality of Norway, he simply left the German officers aboard the Altmark.

He sums up the experience in his memoirs in classic British understatement:
I received many letters from the public after this affair: a number wrote to say that, as I had failed to shoot, or hang, the Captain of the Altmark, I ought to be shot myself.
[Source: Action this Day: A War Memoir by Philip Vian. Images courtesy of the Blitzwalkers, UK Imperial War Museums, Wikipedia, and Ahoy, Mac’s Web Log.]

HMS Hunter, Sunk During First Battle of Narvik 10 April 1940, Found in One Thousand Feet of Water – Part 29

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British and Norwegian naval vessels went in formation around HMS Hunter.

From Metro UK News 9 March 2008:

A procession of ships led by Flag Ship HMS Albion, and including HMS Bulwark and HMS Cornwall held a formal wreath-laying and memorial service, conducting synchronised ceremonies on deck.

They then turned in formation and steamed over the wreck. The 110 crew who perished when HMS Hunter was sunk were toasted in the traditional Navy way, with a tot of rum poured over the side.

Two of the youngest members of the ship’s company on HMS Albion, Engineering Technician Joe George and Able Seaman Warfare Specialist Yasmin Thornton, both 17, dropped the wreath over the side on behalf of the ship’s company.

[Source: Metro UK News. Image courtesy of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation.]

HMS Hunter, Sunk During First Battle of Narvik 10 April 1940, Found in One Thousand Feet of Water – Part 27

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British Royal Navy helicopter over the resting place of HMS Hunter.

When Germany attacked Norway on 9 April 1940, only Great Britain and France came to her assistance. (A unit composed of Polish émigrés and refugees fought under British command.)

Soldiers of the Polish Independent Highlander Brigade during the Battle of Narvik in 1940.

Units of the French Foreign Legion fought in Norway along with French alpine troops. Unfortunately, the entire effort was disorganized and ineffective. The Norwegian Army itself was not even mobilized until after the Germans landed and when it was finally mobilized, it was one muddle after another since many of their key supply depots had already fallen into German hands.

Fortunately, almost every time the Germans were about to trap an Allied unit, that unit fought its way to the shoreline and was snatched from the Germans by the Royal Navy — often in the most perilous of circumstances with Royal Navy ships engaging land based German artillery.

The Norwegians have never forgotten the help they received from the British and the French. Eventually there was little the Allies could do in the face of overwhelming German air superiority and all Allied troops were withdrawn. The King of Norway and the Royal Family were taken off in a British destroyer and brought to England to form the Norwegian Government in exile. One good thing about a monarchy is that if you have the King or the Queen, only they can give legitimacy to a government.

Memorial speech in honor of the British officers and ratings killed in action aboard HMS Hunter.

[Images courtesy of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation, Wikipedia, and the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation.]