World War One Aircraft Deployed In World War Two?

Swordfish only entered active service in 1936 and Served Royal Navy Throughout the WORLD War Two.

A Swordfish taking off from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal, with another passing by astern, circa 1939.                                                                                      (Photo courtesy of US History and Heritage Command).

Although the Swordfish bi-plane looks like a relic from World War One, it only entered active service in 1936. The Fairey Aviation Company came up with the plans for the Swordfish. The plane was made of heavy canvas stretched over a wooden frame.

While originally built as a prototype for the Greek Navy, they turned it down in the mid-30s and Fairey Brothers Aircraft offered it the Royal Navy primarily for use on aircraft carriers. After design changes the plane went into production as the famous Royal Navy Swordfish which served multiple roles: patrol and reconnaissance, torpedo bomber, tactical bomber to support infantry and U-boat hunter/killer. The plane was oddly effective in all of these roles and was used operationally for the entire war.

 

THE BATTLE OF ATLANTIC, 1939-1945 (A 19718) A batman uses signal bats to guide the landing of a rocket-firing Fairey Swordfish of No. 816 Squadron Fleet Air Arm on board HMS TRACKER in the North Atlantic, September-October 1943. Note the rocket projectiles under the wings. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205186701

 

A FAIREY SWORDFISH IN FLIGHT (TR 1139) Distant view of two Fairey Swordfish aircraft in flight. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205188677

FAIREY SWORDFISH’S NEW STING. JUNE 1944, ROYAL NAVAL AIR STATION, ST MERRYN, PADSTOW. THE FIRING OF ROCKET PROJECTILES FROM FAIREY SWORDFISH AIRCRAFT OF THE RAF. THE FAIREY SWORDFISH IS PRACTICE FIRING AT A ROCK TARGET. (A 23783) Fairey Swordfish loaded with rocket projectiles. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205155832
A FAIREY SWORDFISH IN FLIGHT (TR 1138) Close-up of a Fairey Swordfish Mark II, HS 545 ‘B’, in flight as seen through the struts of another aircraft, probably while serving with No 824 Squadron, Fleet Air Arm, 1943-1944. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205188676
THE ROYAL NAVY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR (A 3538) No 785 Squadron, Fleet Air Arm: Fairey Swordfish Mk I Naval torpedo aircraft during a training flight from Royal Naval Air Station Crail. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205015987

 

THE ROYAL NAVY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR (A 24983) Three rocket projectile Fairey Swordfish during a training flight from St Merryn Royal Naval Air Station This operational squadron was commanded by Lieutenant Commander P Snow RN. Note the invasion stripes carried for the Normandy landings on the wings and fuselage of the aircraft. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205016145

(Shortly before D-Day, all Allied aircraft with the exception of heavy bombers had three black stripes painted on each wing to help Allied troops ientify them as friendly aircraft. Allied soldiers had a tendency to fire on any aircraft and this continued despite the three black stripes)

 

THE ROYAL NAVY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR (A 24986) Three rocket projectile Fairey Swordfish during a training flight from St Merryn Royal Naval Air Station This operational squadron was commanded by Lieutenant Commander P Snow RN. Note the invasion stripes carried for the Normandy landings on the wings and fuselage of the aircraft. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205016147

 

THE ROYAL NAVY DURING THE SECOND WORLD WAR (A 23784) Rockets fired from a Fairey Swordfish on their way to the target. The Fairey Swordfish was firing 60 lb HE heads at a rock target. The aircraft has flown from the Royal Naval Air Station at St Merryn, Padstow. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205016140

 

ROCKET FIRING FAIREY SWORDFISH. 1 AUGUST 1944, ST MERRYN ROYAL NAVAL AIR STATION. PRACTICE WITH AN OPERATIONAL SQUADRON OF ROCKET PROJECTILE FAIREY SWORDFISH, COMMANDED BY LIEUTENANT COMMANDER P SNOW, RN. (A 24985) Rocket projectile Fairey Swordfish in flight. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205156785

First Major Warship to Be Sunk by Air Attack

 

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light cruiser KMS Konigsberg circa 1935. Official US Navy photo.

On 10 April 1940 during the Norwegian campaign, fifteen FAA (Fleet Air Air of Royal Navy) Skua dive-bombers pounced on KMS Konigsberg tied up to a jetty in Bergen Harbour. All fifteen dived bombed the ship. Three bombs hit the Konigsberg which rolled over and sank. Not one British aircraft was shot down.

She was the first major warship ever to be sunk by air attack.

 

source: Narvik by Peter Dickens

 

 

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KMS Konigsberg taken at Swinemunde, Germany, with a sentry on guard in the foreground. The original photograph, from Office of Naval Intelligence files, was dated 1938. However it appears to have actually been taken earlier in that decade. Note Königsberg‘s searchlights and torpedo tubes. The light cruiser Leipzig is in the right distance.

Worst Meeting of a Prospective Mother-In-Law—ever.


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we are not amused

“You are quite the most un-impressive young man I have ever met….,

said the girl’s mother at a lunch with the prospective groom in London. Further, the mother said that for her daughter to marry, “a young man like you, sodden with drink, would be madness and a total disaster. You will understand that I hope sincerely never to see you again…”

So writes Hank Adlam in On and Off the Flight Deck: Reflections of a Naval Fighter Pilot In World War Two, his memoir of wartime service as a carrier pilot in the Royal Navy. When the war ended, he was serving aboard HMS Colossus, a Royal Navy carrier in the Indian Ocean. He had miraculously survived years of aerial combat and had been decorated for bravery on several occasions.

Prior to returning to England, his ship had to undergo two weeks of engine repairs in Cape Town. Since the local young men were away serving in the forces, there was a man shortage. Into this hothouse descended the fighter pilots from the carrier, including Adlam who was young, slender and cut a dashing figure in his uniform. “For this first and only… very brief moment in my life, I might have appeared as a figure of glamour,” he writes.

The young fighter pilots found themselves the center of attention from females of the social elite who were desperate for male company. The wealthy families of these young women held dozens of receptions and cocktails parties and dinners for these heroic young men and they took all that was offered to them, including the daughters.

A beautiful young woman by the name of Pam set her cap for Adlam on the basis of several dates which involved some heavy kissing. Indeed, after three more dates she decided she was in love and wanted to marry him. A good idea all around everyone thought except for the woman’s mother, as we saw in the beginning, and Adlam himself, who writes,  “while at Cape Town, I escaped marriage by the skin of my teeth. She really was a nice girl…”  While they had no formal engagement, they had an understanding, at least on her part.

After he sailed away, she wrote him long letters—every single day—letters, “written to me in loving terms by Pam…” Each time his carrier docked for fuel and stores on its way back to England, “stacks of these letters in their mauve envelopes were waiting for me…and I came to absolutely dread them.”

Whatever feelings of romance he had for Pam were killed by this deluge of letters from her which he stopped reading after the first twenty or thirty.

Her parents were divorced and her formidable mother lived in London. Upon arrival in England, Adlam made a luncheon appointment with her mother, as he had been instructed to do by Pam’s father and other relatives in South Africa. The purpose, so Pam and her family in South Africa thought, was for her mother to meet this “marvelous young naval officer.” In doing so, she would be so impressed that she would give her blessing to the union and the two love birds could finally get married.

The biggest obstacle? Adlam didn’t want to marry Pam, did not love her and had no intention of marrying her. Alas, in the months between their meeting in South Africa and his final arrival in England, he had not had the courage to tell Pam he wasn’t going to marry her—so he decided that instead he would tell Pam’s mother. Only he didn’t get that far.

Adlam explains, “nevertheless, I wanted very much to make a good impression on her mother so that I would appear mature and a man of the world while explaining to her that I couldn’t marry her daughter.”

He reserved a table for lunch at a very expensive restaurant and arrived early and very nervous. So nervous in fact he knocked back three martinis before Pam’s mother got to the restaurant. If you are or have been a drinking man, you will know that three martinis on an empty stomach before lunch will certainly make you a bit unsteady. Adding to this unsteadiness, was wine during lunch of which he drank most of the bottle.

Before he could blurt out to Pam’s mother that he didn’t want to marry her daughter, she said she had to leave to catch her train. Adlam called for the bill and in the most embarrassing moment of all, didn’t have nearly enough money to pay it. So Pam’s mother had to pay for half the lunch.

When she stood to leave, naturally Adlam stood as well and it was then that she let loose with the words found in the first paragraph. She added that she was immediately going to send a telegram to the family in South Africa repeating what she had just said.

I would say that this is the most embarrassing story I have ever encountered of a meeting between what was thought, by the mother and daughter at least, to be a prospective groom.

Hank Adlam later met a woman he fell in love with and married, quickly, since she was pregnant by him. Nonetheless, it appears from his memoirs to have been a happy union. Thank God.

The Failure of Royal Navy Aircraft in World War Two

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A Supermarine Seafire landing on board HMS ILLUSTRIOUS, February 1943. This was the naval version of the famed Spitfire.

During the First World War, the British Navy developed a highly successful naval air force called the Royal Navy Air Service (RNAS). This entity designed and built naval aircraft to be catapulted from surface ships. Toward the end of the war, a flight deck was added to a RN battlecruiser and the first landing of an aircraft on a ship took place. RNAS trained its own pilots and maintenance crews all of whom were regular Royal Navy officers and other ranks.

After the war, the Royal Navy lost control of their aviation to the Royal Air Force. Part of its brief was to provide the Royal Navy with suitable aircraft and to train aircrew and maintenance crews. This system did not work well and led to absurbdities such as Royal Navy commanders given a sub-lieutenant’s rank in the RAF while they did their pilot or observer training and being treated as such. Additionally, the Royal Air Force, like the US Army Air Force, was controlled by “Bomber Barons.”

These men were only interested in building up their strategic bombing forces and they ignored the the highly specialized aircraft requirements of the Royal Navy. This resulted in a lack of aircraft designed  to be used on aircraft carriers and dramatically reduced the effectiveness of the British naval aviation. Only when the the US came into the war did the RN slowly begin to acquire planes built to withstand the rigor of carrier operations.

As a substitute in the first years of the war, the British Admiralty pressed into carrier service the Seafire, a hastily cobbled together carrier plane created by making slight modifications to the famous RAF Spitfire. Unfortunately, the Spitfire was never desgined to operate from an aircraft carrier. Since the Seafire was nothing but a Spitfire with a few design changes, this was less than a successful solution. That the Spitfire was difficult to fly only added to the problems.

 

 

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A Supermarine Seafire nosed over on the flight deck of HMS SMITER after a landing accident, 1944. Official Royal Navy photo courtesy of the Imperial War Museum.

 

Because of this, two less-than-ideal-things often happened: the landing gear couldn’t take the strain and collapsed. This caused the Seafire to skid on its belly down the steel flight deck which bent the propeller. Second, given the desgin of the Spitfire/Seafire, the aircraft had a tendency to nose forward a bit on landing. On an aircraft carrier, this also caused the propeller to hit the steel deck and bent the propeller.

Machinists on British carriers did not have the ability to fix propellers so badly damaged. Hence, they had to replace them and RN aircraft carriers using Seafires would go through fifty or a hundred replacement propellers in a handful of days when on active operations.

In his memoirs, Admiral of the Fleet Philip Vian, commanding Allied aircraft carriers covering Allied landings off Salerno,  wrote that one exasperated aircraft carrier captain had eight inches sawed of the propeller blades of all his Seafires. This dramatically reduced the number of bent propellers which increased operational readiness dramtically and had no effect on the performance of the aircraft.

Landing on an aircraft aircraft has been described by naval pilots as a “controlled crash.” The deck is so short in relation to a landing strip on the ground that the objective is to get the plane on the deck of the carrier as soon as you can so the arresting wires will catch the tail hook and jerk the plane to a halt.

There were a series of arresting wires, as many as nine on World War Two carriers, so the odds were good that your tailhook would catch one of them. When landing you approached the aircraft carrier from astern and were guided into landing by the “batsman,” (in Royal Navy parlance), an experienced naval aviator with a luminous paddle in each hand.

This was a tricky business. You had to come in low and slow enough to get your plane on the deck of the carrier as soon as you could without crashing into the stern. Trying to do this in a heavy sea with the stern rising and falling required exquisite timing. In bad weather the bow and stern could be rising or falling as much as forty feet in less than a minute.

While the RN regained controlled of naval aviation in 1937, the reformed RNAS, then re-named as the Fleet Air Arm (FAA), never came up to par with the aviation units of either the US Navy or Japanese Navy. Making this more insufferable, it was the Royal Navy which had invented carrier aviation.

The residual anger over their treatment by the RAF in the interwar years, caused a contentious relationship between the RN and the RAF throughout the 1939-1945 war. That RAF pilots did not excel in ship recognition and attacked almost every ship they came across, including RN ships, did not help ameliorate the strain between the services. Neither did the RN response which was to open fire on any aircraft.

The Royal Navy was well aware of the problems with the Seafire but used it because they had no choice until more US planes built for operating of aircraft carriers became available to the British.