“We shall Fight in France…we shall never surrender…”

 

Winston Churchill to Parliament on 4 June 1940

“…we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our Island, whatever the cost may be…we shall never surrender.”

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1940 (F 2038) Men of the 2nd Battalion Royal Fusiliers in a trench in front of the Maginot Line, 3 January 1940. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204830

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1940 (F 4121) Men of 2nd Battalion Essex Regiment study a map during an exercise at Meurchin, 27 April 1940. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204923

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1940 (F 4074) Gracie Fields shares a joke with troops in a village near Valenciennes, 26 April 1940. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204920

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1940 (F 4186) Searchlight of 10th Battery, 3rd Searchlight Regiment, Royal Artillery, near Carvin, 1 May 1940. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204924

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1940 (F 3238) Troops from 2nd Battalion Middlesex Regiment, 3rd Division, training on the Vickers machine gun at Gondecourt, 21 March 1940 Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204892

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 46) Motor transport of 2nd Battalion Coldstream Guards outside Battalion HQ at Conlie, 22 September 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204992

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 223) Men of 1st Battalion Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders constructing trenches at Aix, 12 November 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205011

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 514) Troops of the 1st Royal Berkshire Regiment, 2nd Division, checking the papers of civilians at Becun on the Franco-Belgian border, 10 October 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205029

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939-40 (O 2288) The Grenadier Guards building breastworks on flooded ground at Hem, December 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205065

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 86) Men of the BEF being transported from Cherbourg to their assembly area in a railway goods wagon, 29 September 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205204998

On the top right you will note the loading limits of the goods wagon for military purposes:  40 men or 8 horses.

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 415) Troops from the Royal Berkshire Regiment manning trenches near Mouchin, 29 November 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205023

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 427) The cramped interior of the battery commander’s dugout at a 25-pdr field gun battery near Mouchin, 29 November 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205025

 

THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939-40 (O 878) Lines of barbed-wire obstacles stretch across snow-covered fields near Menin, 17 Infantry Brigade sector, 21 January 1940. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205055
THE BRITISH ARMY IN FRANCE 1939 (O 327) A 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft gun and crew near Douai, November 1939. Copyright: © IWM. Original Source: http://www.iwm.org.uk/collections/item/object/205205017

 

*Featured image:  A 40mm Bofors anti-aircraft gun and crew near Douai, November 1939 Courtesy Imperial War Museum

US Navy Destroyers Are Newest Hybrid Vehicle on Market

 

110918-N-BC134-014  PACIFIC OCEAN (Sept. 18, 2011) The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Halsey (DDG 97) transits the Pacific Ocean. Halsey is conducting a three-week composite training unit exercise in preparation for a deployment to the western Pacific Ocean. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman John Grandin/Released)
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PACIFIC OCEAN (Sept. 18, 2011) The Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Halsey (DDG 97) transits the Pacific Ocean. Halsey is conducting a three-week composite training unit exercise in preparation for a deployment to the western Pacific Ocean. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman John Grandin/Released)

 

Hybrid power trains are most commonly associated with fuel efficient passenger cars. It was once a novelty, but you can get hybrid versions of many cars out there, from family sedans to luxury cars, and even sports cars. You can now add U.S. Navy destroyers to that list of hybrid-equipped vehicles.

The Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer is the mainstay of the U.S. Navy’s surface combatants. There are 62 active destroyers of this class, and up to another 42 planned. Each packs more than 90 missiles, as well as other weapons systems. In addition to our super carriers, they represent a key component of the United States projecting its power around the globe. And they are about to get a little greener, with the addition of hybrid electric drives.

Starting in 2016, the Navy will start to convert 34 of the newest boats in the class to hybrid drives. This will be accomplished by integrating an electric motor into the ship’s main reduction gear. It will be able to operate on fully electric power at speeds below 13 knots. Above that, it will continue to run the quartet of General Electric gas turbine engines.

 

https://www.yahoo.com/autos/s/u-navy-converting-guided-missle-destroyers-hybrids-190044721.html?soc_src=mail&soc_trk=ma

Russian Soldiers Dancing Like Crazy Ivans

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Russian soldiers in World War Two uniforms prepare to march through Red Square
(photo courtesy Financial Times)
“Must be drunk, Herr Oberleutnant. They’re dancing around like lunatics.”

While retreating through Rumania in World War Two, sentries for a German unit notice something very odd going on in a nearby village occupied by Russian troops. For reasons unknown, the Russian soldiers suddenly begin to dance around like fools. German troops, peeking out of their foxholes, start laughing as the Russian troops in the distance run around like they are mad, jump up and down, roll on the ground, swat themselves all over.

Most of the Russians begin shouting so loudly the sound carries as far as the German line and the German troops double up with laughter. Incredibly, the Russian soldiers manning the defense perimeter along the side of the village facing the Germans, jump out of their foxholes, shrieking, and waving their arms in the air. Are the Russians drunk the Germans wonder?

All of a sudden,

…a bunch of Russians are running directly toward us, as if they are being chased by the very devil. As they’re running they’re flapping their arms all about, as if trying to fly.

The German soldier witnessing this event is just about to open fire with his machine gun when his officer tells him to hold fire because the Russians are unarmed.

The Ivans run madly through the German lines, leaping over German foxholes while flapping their arms and shrieking. A swarm of mad bees had attacked the Russian soldiers and stung them so many times they would do anything to get away, even throwing down their firearms and running in the direction of the German line.

(Source: Blood Red Snow: the Memoirs of a German Soldier On the Eastern Front by Gunther K Koschorrek)

 

Russian soldiers dressed in Red Army World War II uniforms prepare to parade in Red Square in front of a backdrop of St. Basil Cathedral in Moscow, Russia, Thursday, Nov. 7, 2013. Thousands of Russian soldiers and military cadets marched across Red Square to mark the 72nd anniversary of a historic World War II parade. The show honored the participants of the Nov. 7, 1941 parade who headed directly to the front lines to defend Moscow from the Nazi forces. The parade Thursday involved about 6,000 people, many of them dressed in World War II-era uniforms. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko)
Russian soldiers dressed in Red Army World War II uniforms prepare to parade in Red Square in front of a backdrop of St. Basil Cathedral in Moscow, Russia, Thursday, Nov. 7, 2013. Thousands of Russian soldiers and military cadets marched across Red Square to mark the 72nd anniversary of a historic World War II parade. The show honored the participants of the Nov. 7, 1941 parade who headed directly to the front lines to defend Moscow from the Nazi forces. The parade Thursday involved about 6,000 people, many of them dressed in World War II-era uniforms. (AP Photo/Alexander Zemlianichenko)

(Courtesy of London Financial Times)

http://blogs.ft.com/photo-diary/tag/wwii/

No Bathing Facilities on U-Boats Led to Constant Outbreaks of Skin Diseases and Horrible Smells Inside of the Boats

“It stinks in here!”

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This still photo from the German film “Das Boot” gives you an idea of how cramped was the interior of a U-boat. This particular shot is of the engine room with the two 12 cylinder MAN diesels usually found in German U-Boats of the era. “Das Boot” translates as “The Boat.” In German, “boot” is pronounced “boat.”

Because they were unable to bathe, most U-Boat crewmen developed skin rashes, boils, and all other manner of skin diseases. The UBootwaffe had a special medical department which did nothing but study the skin diseases of Uboot crewmen. (Tuberculosis was also a major problem due to the constant damp.)

Also contributing to skin diseases among the men was the sickening miasma of air inside the uboat which clung to their skin and often infected their lungs. When boats returned from patrol and the flotilla engineers went aboard to make an inspection, they usually vomited because of the horrible smell.

U-boats were not well ventilated so when they were on the surface, the only way to get fresh air into the boat was to keep the bridge hatches open, close the outboard air intakes to the diesels, open the e-motor interior hatch and interior engine room hatch. This allowed the diesel engines to draw air from the outside through the open hatchways.

This arrangement didn’t help as much as one might think since there was no way to vent the bad air except by opening the engine room deck hatch or the forward hatch to the deck in the crew compartment. This was never, ever done at sea except in an emergency.

So the fresh air coming in helped but it did not expel the bad air. The author of every U-Boat memoir I have ever read remarks on the horrible fugue of noxious air and the the disgusting smell which no one ever completely adjusted to.

This smell was a combination of the body odor of 45 or more unwashed men, their exhalations, rotting food, diesel oil, cooking odors, and worst of all, the smell of urine and excrement in the bilges.

While the most common types of uboat, the type VII and type IX had two toilets or water closets, one was always used for storage and wasn’t available. So one toilet had to suffice for more than 45 men. The controls were so difficult to operate that each boat had one man especially trained in how to work the controls and he was known as “the toilet fuhrer”). Below 25 meters the toilet did not work because the water pressure was such that one could not open the outboard toilet valve to discharge the contents of the toilet.

Even if you could manage to open it, doing so was forbidden since it would create a weak spot and comprise the water-tight integrity of the boat. So the men used cans or buckets to urinate or defecate. As you might imagine, in the heat of action or action drills, these containers were often kicked over or in an emergency dive tipped over, spilling their contents.

Being in a Uboat was like serving time in a public latrine that was never sanitized in spite of constant efforts by the crew to keep the interior of the boat clean.

****

As an aside, the founder of the U-Boot Archiv in Cuxhaven, the late Horst Bredow, an officer in the UBootwaffe, had made one war patrol in the last months of World War Two. He had to be hospitalized upon returning to port because he had developed a skin rash covering his entire body. Another officer replaced him on his Uboat. The boat was sunk with all hands on her next war patrol. (The Archiv has changed its name from “U-Boot Archiv” to Deutsches U-Boot Museum.)

The link to their site is here:  http://www.dubm.de/home.html